Exercise can reverse damage to sedentary, aging hearts and help prevent the risk of future heart failure — if it’s enough exercise and if it’s begun in time, according to a new study by cardiologists at UT Southwestern and Texas Health Resources. The study appears in Circulation, a journal of the American Heart Association.
To reap the most benefit, the exercise regimen should begin by late middle age (before age 65), when the heart apparently retains some plasticity and ability to remodel itself, according to the findings by researchers at the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine (IEEM).
The regimen included exercising four to five times a week, generally in 30-minute sessions, plus warm-up and cool-down. Said senior author Dr. Benjamin Levine, Director of the Institute and Professor of Internal Medicine at UT Southwestern:
“Based on a series of studies performed by our team over the past 5 years, this dose of exercise has become my prescription for life. I think people should be able to do this as part of their personal hygiene — just like brushing your teeth and taking a shower.”
One of the weekly sessions included a high-intensity 30-minute workout, such as aerobic interval sessions in which heart rate tops 95 percent of peak rate for 4 minutes, with 3 minutes of recovery, repeated four times. Each interval session was followed by a recovery session performed at a relatively low intensity.
One day’s session lasted an hour and was of moderate intensity. This longer session could be a fun activity such as tennis, aerobic dancing, walking, or biking.
One or two other sessions were performed each week at a moderate intensity, meaning the participant would break a sweat, be a little short of breath, but still be able to carry on a conversation. In the study, exercise sessions were individually prescribed based on exercise tests and heart rate monitoring.
One or two weekly strength training sessions using weights or exercise machines were included on a separate day, or after an endurance session.
Study participants built up to those levels, beginning with three, 30-minute, moderate exercise sessions for the first 3 months and peaked at 10 months when two high-intensity aerobic intervals were added.
Researchers recruited 53 participants, ages 45 to 64, who were divided into two groups, one of which received two years of supervised exercise training and the other group, a control group, which participated in yoga and balance training.
At the end of the two-year study, those who had exercised showed an 18 percent improvement in their maximum oxygen intake during exercise and a more than 25 percent improvement in compliance, or elasticity, of the left ventricular muscle of the heart, Dr. Levine noted. He compared the change in the heart to a stretchy, new rubber band versus one that has gotten stiff sitting in a drawer.
Sedentary aging can lead to a stiffening of the muscle in the heart’s left ventricle, the chamber that pumps oxygen-rich blood back out to the body, as Dr. Levine explained:
“When the muscle stiffens, you get high pressure and the heart chamber doesn’t fill as well with blood. In its most severe form, blood can back up into the lungs. That’s when heart failure develops.”
Earlier research by UT Southwestern cardiologists showed that left ventricular stiffening often shows up in middle age in people who don’t exercise and aren’t fit, leaving them with small, stiff chambers that can’t pump blood as well.
However, the researchers also found that the heart chamber in competitive masters-level athletes remains large and elastic and that even four to five days of committed exercise over decades is enough for non-competitive athletes to reap most of this benefit.
In the current study, researchers wanted to know if exercise can restore the heart’s elasticity in previously sedentary individuals — especially if begun in late middle age. Previous studies from Dr. Levine’s research program have shown substantial improvements in cardiac compliance in young individuals after a year of training, but surprisingly little change if the training was started after the age of 65.